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Information About Typhoid Fever

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  Typhoid Fever
Typhoid fever is an illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. Very common worldwide, it is transmitted by food or water contaminated with feces from an infected person. After infection, symptoms include a high fever from 103° to 104°F (39° to 40°C) that rises slowly , slow pulse rate (bradycardia), weakness, headaches, lack of appetite, severe diarrhea, stomach pains, and a rash of flat, rose-colored spots called the rose spots.

Extreme symptoms such as intestinal perforation or haemorrhage, delusions, and confusion also are possible. Diagnosis is made by blood, bone marrow or stool cultures and with the Widal test (demonstration of salmonella antibodies against antigens O-somatic and H-flagellar) or, in less affluent countries with the urine diazo test.

In epidemics and less wealthy countries, after excluding malaria, dysentery or pneumonia, a therapeutic trial with chloramphenicol is generally undertaken while awaiting the results of Widal test and blood cultures. Typhoid fever can be fatal. Antibiotics, such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin are commonly used in treating typhoid fever.

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